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Simple Validator in Windows Presentation Foundation

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23 Oct 2009CPOL2 min read 31.6K   611   17   4
Attach simple validator to validate controls


There are plenty of articles about WPF and validation rules, but this article will show you a basic implementation of validation rules you can attach to textboxes to provide quick and simple validation based on specified types.


This article will not go into detail of the WPF validation rule feature but will try to explain the general workings. The SimpleValidator is an attached behaviour that can be attached to a TextBox control (possibly other controls later) with a specific type you wish to validate. There are three (3) other optional properties you can use to set the upper bound and lower bound of number types or to specify that the value cannot be empty. Let's see some usages.

Using the Code

There is very little to explain about using the code for it is relatively simple and straight forward. Say we have a TextBox and wish that only numbers (Double) values will be valid. We need to proceed to bind (validation only works on data-bound controls) the Text property to our code-behind (or ViewModel) text. Setting the UpdateSourceTrigger to PropertyChanged ensures that validation happens on every keystroke.

Now we use the attached property to set the type we wish to use (i.e. Double):

<TextBox Text="{Binding BackingText, UpdateSourceTrigger=PropertyChanged}" 
	validator:SimpleValidator.ValidationType="{x:Type system:Double}" />

Remembering that system namespace can be declared as follows:


To set an upper bound and lower bound to the validation, we simply use as follows:

<TextBox Text="{Binding BackingText, UpdateSourceTrigger=PropertyChanged}" 
	validator:SimpleValidator.ValidationType="{x:Type system:Double}" />

This will cause our TextBox to only accept numbers (Double) between the range of five (5) and twenty (20) inclusive. All other values and characters will be rejected. Finally, using the NoEmptyValue property will reject any string value that is empty (after stripping away leading and trailing empty spaces).

<TextBox Text="{Binding Text, UpdateSourceTrigger=PropertyChanged}" 
	validator:SimpleValidator.NoEmptyValue="True" />

How It Works

I will try to briefly describe the workings for those that are curious, but from examining the source code, it's pretty straight forward. The key point of the features is here:

// When the element has loaded.
element.Loaded += (s, e) =>
        // Create a new validator
        var validation = new SimpleValidator(GetValidationType(obj), 
		GetUpperRange(obj), GetLowerRange(obj), GetNoEmptyValue(obj));
        // Get the binding expression for the textbox property
        Binding binding = BindingOperations.GetBinding(obj, TextBox.TextProperty);
        // If not null and doesn't already contain the validator, then add it.
        if (binding != null)
            if (!binding.ValidationRules.Contains(validation))

Basically what happens is when the element is loaded (so that all the bindings are in place), we will create a new instance of our validation rule class and send in the rules we need to validate. We then get the binding from the element's Text dependency property (could be others later on) and add the new validation rule class to it if it doesn't already exist (to avoid multiplicity).


This is my first article and any feedback would be greatly welcomed. Please send me any improvement suggestions on how to get this to work for controls other than TextBox.


  • 23rd October, 2009: Initial post


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

Written By
Software Developer (Senior) Stowe Australia
Australia Australia
Java/C++ Background.
Currently working in C#
WPF, WCF, Entity Framework

Comments and Discussions

QuestionErrors Pin
Kelsea26-Sep-14 6:18
Kelsea26-Sep-14 6:18 
Questionred frame [modified] Pin
tal_segal27-Oct-09 21:32
tal_segal27-Oct-09 21:32 
AnswerRe: red frame Pin
Tri Q Tran28-Oct-09 17:52
Tri Q Tran28-Oct-09 17:52 
GeneralRe: red frame Pin
tal_segal31-Oct-09 20:20
tal_segal31-Oct-09 20:20 
Thank you

Good reference. The red frame is the default Error Template.
All the best.

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