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Suggestion for a Better XML/HTML Syntax

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19 Apr 2021GPL323 min read 28.7K   17   66
New improved XML/HTML syntax
This article suggests a new XML/HTML syntax that is less verbose, easy to read and write, and works well for all kinds of XML documents, including HTML code.

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XML is a great technology with many useful, standardized, and well supported extensions like XML schemas, XPath, XQuery, XSLT, etc. However, XML has a reputation of being too verbose. This doesn't come as a surprise if we look at one of the design goals stated in the official W3C XML Recommendation:

"Terseness in XML markup is of minimal importance."

-- XML specification

An interesting question arises: "Couldn't we keep the technology, but just improve the syntax in order to make XML and HTML easier to read and write for humans?"

As shown in this article, the answer to this question is a resounding "Yes, we can!".

We'll have a look at a suggestion for a new syntax that is less verbose, easy to read and write, and works well for all kinds of XML documents, including HTML code.


Readers of this article are supposed to have a basic knowledge of XML, HTML, and JSON.

Existing Alternatives

Before trying to invent anything new, we should of course first have a deep look at what exists already.

This chapter answers the question: Is there any existing markup language with a more human-friendly syntax than XML/HTML, but also well suited for big, complex, and changing documents?


In the last years, JSON has overtaken XML in terms of popularity.

To understand why (in the context of syntax), let's have a look at a simple data structure in JSON:

    "person": {
        "name": "Albert",
        "married": true,
        "address": {
            "street": "Kramgasse",
            "city": "Bern"
        "phones": [ "123", "456"]

In XML, the code could look like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Many people prefer the JSON syntax. It is easier to read and less verbose than the XML version. Not counting indentation spaces, the above JSON code requires 144 characters to type. The XML code has 276 characters. That's an increase of 92%!

Examples like the above one lead to an intriguing question:

  • "Couldn't we just stop using XML and use JSON instead for everything?"

For example, could we use the JSON syntax to write HTML documents?

Let's try.

Here is a simple HTML snippet:

<p>foo bar</p>

In JSON, we could express this as follows:

{ "p": "foo bar" }

Let's write foo in italics, and bar in bold.


<p><i>foo</i> <b>bar</b></p>


{ "p": [ { "i":"foo" }, " ", { "b": "bar" } ] }

Now we want to display everything in red:


<p style="color:red;"><i>foo</i> <b>bar</b></p>


{ "p": { "style": "color:red;", "content": [ { "i": "foo" }, " ", { "b": "bar" } ] } }

We can prettify to make the code easier to read:

            " ",

But now, the HTML one-liner has mutated into a '14 lines monster with lots of horizontal and vertical whitespace'.

Not quite what we are looking for.

Besides the obvious fact that the complexity of the JSON code increases quickly, there is another worrying observation:

  • In the first example, the p element's value was a string: "p": "...".
  • In the second example, the value becomes a JSON array: "p": [...].
  • In the last example, it mutates to a JSON object: "p": {...}.

Such changes can easily lead to maintenance nightmares. Code that inspects the data structure must be updated each time the code changes. For example, if we wanted to extract the text of element p, we would need to write different code for the three cases.

XML doesn't have this problem. The content of p is always a list of child elements.

At this point, you hopefully agree that we can stop further investigation and move on. The JSON syntax is a bad fit for describing markup code like HTML documents in a human-friendly way. That doesn't mean of course that 'JSON is bad'. JSON is a good choice in many cases. It is a native part of JavaScript, well supported in most programming languages, and there are lots of libraries and tools available for JSON. However, in the context of our search for a better markup syntax, JSON (as well as all variations of it) is not an option. Later on, we'll have a look at a more complete HTML example that confirms our conclusion.


One way to minimize verbosity is to use indentation to define structure. YAML is probably the most popular language that uses this technique.

Here is a reprint of a JSON example we saw previously:

    "person": {
        "name": "Albert",
        "married": true,
        "address": {
            "street": "Kramgasse",
            "city": "Bern"
        "phones": [ "123", "456"]

In YAML, this becomes:

    name: Albert
    married: true
        street: Kramgasse
        city: Bern
        - 123
        - 456


Easy to read and write.

At first sight, it might seem that we could use such a noise-less syntax for all kinds of data structures, including markup code.

It turns out that would be a very bad idea. The problem with YAML and all other languages that use indentation to define structure is this: It works well for small, simple structures (such as config files). But if we need to manage big documents with deeply nested structures then it quickly becomes error-prone and unmaintainable.

Moreover, while using indentation to define structure effectively reduces verbosity, it also leads to much more lines of code for certain types of documents. The reason is that each child element must be written on a new line.

To illustrate this, let's see how the simple HTML one-liner we used in the previous chapter would be written in YAML. Here is a reprint of the HTML:

<p style="color:red;"><i>foo</i> <b>bar</b></p>

In YAML, the code would look like this:

    style: 'color:red;'
        - i: foo
        - ' '
        - b: bar

There are other arguments against whitespace-sensitive documents, such as the problems with mixing spaces and tabs, and code snippets that cannot be shared between different documents with different levels of indentation. These inconveniences are well known - there is no need for repetition here.

Finally, the whitespace-significant approach forces us to use whitespace according to the rules (which can get very complex). It takes away the freedom to use whitespace to make documents more appealing and understandable.

As for JSON, this doesn't mean that 'YAML is bad'. YAML is well suited in some cases. What I want to say is that the idea of using whitespace-sensitivity in a markup language like HTML is doomed to fail. It's understandable that, according to Wikipedia, the meaning of the acronym YAML was changed from "Yet Another Markup Language" to "YAML Ain't Markup Language".

XML/HTML ignores whitespace, and that's the right choice.


A good number of other markup languages exist, but I am not aware of any syntax that would be well suited to replace the XML syntax. If you know of a good alternative, then please leave a comment.

There are also many tools and editor plugins aiming to alleviate the pain of writing XML code by hand. However, the gist of this article is not to alleviate the pain. We want to remove it.

New Syntax

In this chapter, I will suggest a new, alternative syntax for XML/HTML documents. The new syntax should be practical for humans and machines. So let's call it practicalXML, or just pXML.


Simple Element

Let's start with the following HTML snippet - a simple element that contains only text:


The first thing we need to do is to get rid of the closing tag syntax (</i>) - the biggest culprit of XML's verbosity. We can do this by just closing the element with >, like this:


This creates an imbalance of < and > symbols. But that's easy to fix. We replace the > in the opening tag with a space - the easiest character to read and write on any keyboard. The code becomes:

<i foo>

Let's think about the brackets. We could use <>, as in XML/HTML. But there are other options: [], {}, and (). We need to consider two points:

  • How easy are they to type?

    [] clearly wins, because on most keyboards (including Dvorak keyboards) all other brackets require the Shift key to be hold down.

  • How often do they occur in normal text?

    This is important because the brackets have to be escaped in normal text. I didn't find any reliable statistics, but my guess would be that () is used often, while the others are used rarely, maybe in this order: {}, [], and <>.

The best option is to use [], because this pair is easy to write (no need for Shift on most keyboards), and square brackets occur rarely in normal text. Moreover, it creates a clear distinction between the new pXML syntax ([]), XML/HTML (<>), and source code (which often uses {}).

Hence the final pXML code becomes:

[i foo]

... which is easier to read and write than:


Another advantage of the new syntax is that bracket matching in text editors (available in most modern versions) becomes more useful. In the case of XML/HTML, the < of the opening tag matches only the > of the opening tag, which is of little use. In VSCode, it looks like this:

XML bracket matching in VSCode

In pXML, the [ of the opening tag matches the ] of the closing tag, which is much more helpful, especially in case of elements with lots of nested content. VSCode example:

pXML bracket matching in VSCode

Empty Element

An empty XML element is an element that has no attributes and no child nodes.

A typical example is the br element used to insert a new line in an HTML document. Here is the code:

<br />  <!--     XML-compliant -->
<br>    <!-- not XML-compliant -->

In pXML, this is written as:


Child Elements

An XML element can optionally contain one or more child elements. They are embedded within the opening and closing tags. Here is an example:

    <tr><td>Cell 1.1</td><td>Cell 1.2</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Cell 2.1</td><td>Cell 2.2</td></tr>

There is no reason to change this in pXML. The above example is written like this:

    [tr [td Cell 1.1][td Cell 1.2]]
    [tr [td Cell 2.1][td Cell 2.2]]

Closing Tags

When nested elements are closed, we often see HTML code like this:


If indentation is used, it looks like this:


In pXML, the code without indentation becomes:


With indentation:


While the new syntax obviously improves writing-speed and reduces the size of code, it also creates two inconveniences:

  • The code becomes less understandable, especially in case of big, nested elements.

  • In case of a missing ] (i.e., we forget to close an element) or a superfluous ], the error message generated by the parser risks to be less helpful. For example, imagine a superfluous ] in the middle of a big document. The parser will only be able to detect the error at the end of the document, and report a superfluous ] at the last line.

    Note, however, that this problem can be largely mitigated when elements are indented, and the parser emits a warning if the indentation of the opening [ and closing ] are different.

To eliminate these inconveniences, we should support an alternative, more verbose syntax to close elements.

Obvious options like [/tag] or tag] don't work, because they create an imbalance of brackets, or they require special rules for exceptional corner cases. I finally opted for the following alternative syntax:


Hence, the above code to close three elements can optionally be written like this:

][/img] ][/div] ][/section]

... or this:


This is a bit more verbose than the XML syntax, because there is one more character per closing tag. But it is also a bit easier to write because the Shift key doesn't have to be used twice. In practice, the verbose syntax is only needed to close big tags with many levels of child elements. So I think the alternative pXML syntax to close tags is a good compromise. It's there if you need it, and it works well (no corner cases that require special rules).

Naming Rules

For compatibility reasons, the rules for element names in pXML must be the same as in XML. Element names:

  • are case-sensitive
  • must start with a letter or underscore
  • cannot start with "xml"
  • can contain letters, digits, hyphens, underscores, and periods
  • cannot contain spaces

Escape Rules

pXML uses the backslash (\ ) as escape character.

There are three characters that must always be escaped in text:

Character Escape Token
[ \[
] \]
\ \\

The following code shows how the text Watch out for <, >, ", ', &, [, ], and \ characters must be escaped in XML and pXML:

XML:  <note>Watch out for &lt;, &gt;, &quot;, &apos;, &amp;, [, ], and \ characters</note>

pXML: [note Watch out for <, >, ", ', &, \[, \], and \\ characters]

Any Unicode character can be inserted by using the \uhhhh syntax commonly used in programming languages. For example the text:


is parsed as:


XML entities are currently not supported in pXML.

In XML, "a &lt; 1" is parsed as a < 1. In pXML it is parsed as "a &lt; 1"

However, if a pXML document is converted to an XML document (or XML to pXML), the conversion automatically applies the correct escape rules. For example, the following pXML text:

\[ <

... will be converted to the following XML text:

[ &lt;

... and vice versa.



Besides elements, XML also supports attributes. Here is an example of an XML element with attributes:

<div id="unplug_warning" class="warning big-text">Unplug power cord before opening!</div>

In pXML, the same code looks like this:

[div ( id=unplug_warning class="warning big-text" ) Unplug power cord before opening!]

As can be seen, the two syntaxes are similar. There are two obvious differences:

  • In pXML, attributes are embedded in parenthesis: (...). The syntax is similar to function argument assignments in some programming languages.
  • In pXML, attribute values don't always need to be quoted (e.g. id=unplug_warning).


In XML, attribute names are not quoted (unlike in JSON), and they must respect the same rules as we previously saw for element tag names.

In order to stay compatible with XML, pXML applies the same rules. Attribute names:

  • must start with a letter or underscore
  • can contain letters, digits, hyphens, underscores, and periods (no spaces)


In XML, attribute values must always be quoted with ". Example: name = "Bob".

In pXML, values can be unquoted, double-quoted, or single-quoted.

Unquoted value

Values are not required to be quoted if they don't contain:

  • whitespace: <space>, <tab>, <carriage return>, <line feed>
  • square brackets: [ and ]
  • parenthesis: ( and )
  • quotes: " and '


name = Bob
port = 8080
path = C:\Users\Alice

Double-quoted and single-quoted value

If a value contains any of the characters not allowed in unquoted values, then the value must be surrounded by double-quotes (") or single-quotes (').


food = "healthy orange"                 // contains space
expression = "array[17]"                // contains square brackets
conclusion = "It's ok."                 // contains '
statement = 'He said: "All is well".'   // contains "

Escape rules

Escape sequences are not supported in unquoted attribute values. Therefore parsing unquoted values is a bit faster.

Escaping is supported for double-quoted and single-quoted values. The following rules are applied:

  • A backslash (\ ) is used to start an escape sequence.

  • Double quotes must be escaped in double-quoted values with \". Example:

    statement = "He said: \"All is well\"."    // He said: "All is well".
  • Single quotes must be escaped in single-quoted values with \'. Example:

    conclusion = 'It\'s ok.'    // It's ok.
  • A backslash must be escaped with \\ . Example:

    path = "C:\\Users\\Alice"    // C:\Users\Alice
  • The following values can optionally be escaped:

    Name Syntax
    square brackets \[ \]
    tab \t
    carriage return \r
    line feed \n
  • Any Unicode character can be inserted by using the \uhhhh syntax commonly used in programming languages. Example:

    word = "Hell\u006f"    // Hello

New lines

For better readability, attribute assignments can be written on separate lines, like this:

[image (
    source = images/kid.png
    title  = "Kid is flabbergasted"
    width  = 800px
    height = 600px

Whitespace between attribute assignments is ignored.

Quoted values can contain new lines. Example:

statement = 'He said:       // He said:
"All is well!"'             // "All is well!" 

If new lines are inserted literally in the code, as in the above example, then the actual new line character(s) parsed depend on the operating system, as well as the editor/program configuration used to create the code. By default:

  • On Unix/Linux, a new line is a single <line feed> character
  • On Windows, a new line is composed of two characters: a <carriage return> and <line feed>

On both systems, this default behavior might be overridden. For example, a Windows editor can be configured to produce a single <line feed> character for new lines inserted in the code.

To force a specific new line in pXML code, we can use an escape sequence in the code, e.g.:

statement = 'He said:\r\n"All is well!"'    // Windows new line forced
statement = 'He said:\n"All is well!"'      // Unix new line forced

Differences between XML and pXML

In pXML, writing:

[e (a1=v1 a2=v2)]

is semantically equivalent to:

[e [a1 v1][a2 v2]]

In both cases, node e is a node with two child nodes: a1 and a2. The API to access the content of e is the same in both cases.

pXML attributes just provide an alternative syntax for child nodes.

The alternative syntax is useful because it is better suited for sets of child nodes that contain only text.

Here is a node not using attributes:

[image [source ball.png][width 300px][height 200px]]

The same node defined with attributes looks like this:

[image (source=ball.png width=300px height=200px)]

The second version (using attributes) is slightly shorter, easier to read and write, and more familiar to people used to the XML attributes syntax. However, both versions are parsed into the same tree structure.

This is in contrast to XML, where attributes and elements are different. In XML, the API used to access attributes is different from the API for child elements. Hence, a program that reads an XML structure must know if a value is defined as an attribute or an element. Moreover, if a value that was initially defined as an attribute, is later defined as an element (or vice versa), then the program that reads the value must be updated. This is not necessary in pXML.


An XML comment looks like this:

<!-- text of comment -->

We can simplify by using [- to start a comment, and -] to stop it. Here is the pXML version:

[- text of comment -]

There is no ambiguity with [- being the start of an element with name - because, according to the rules, an element name cannot contain hyphens (-).

Nested comments are often useful in practice. For example, it's common to comment a block of code that contains already a comment. Therefore pXML supports nested comments (unlike XML). Here is an example:

[- text of outer comment
    [- text of inner comment -]


Applications that convert pXML to XML code must be careful to not convert inner comments, because XML doesn't support nested comments. The above comment cannot be converted to:

<!-- text of outer comment
    <!-- text of inner comment -->

It should be converted to:

<!-- text of outer comment
    [- text of inner comment -]


The following XML syntax constructs are not covered in this introductory article: XML entities, namespaces, CDATA sections, and processing instructions. They might be the subject of a follow-up article.


pXML Predecessor

When I started to ponder about the new syntax, I didn't think at all about creating a better XML/HTML syntax. What I wanted was a new syntax to write articles (published on a blog) and books. Initially I used Docbook, then Asciidoctor to write articles. I also tried out Markdown, and had a look at other syntaxes like RestructedText. To make a long story short: I felt frustrated with some impracticabilities of existing solutions, and finally decided to design a new syntax called Practical Markup Language (PML). If you want to know more about my motivation to create PML, you can read We Need a New Document Markup Language - Here is Why (published in March 2019). (Note: For readers still using a word processor, I also wrote Advantages of Document Markup Languages vs WYSIWYG Editors)

Nowadays, I write all my articles in PML (including this one). To publish them, I created a PML to HTML Converter which reads a PML file and creates a HTML file. You can have a look at the PML source of this article here, and you can see the original version of it here (i.e., the result produced by the PML to HTML Converter). Right-click on the original article, and click 'View Page Source' if you want to have a look at the HTML code produced by the PML to HTML Converter. The converter produces indented, clean and simple HTML code, like hand-coded. The PML to HTML Converter is open-sourced under the GPL2, and written in PPL (Practical Programming Language). The source code is on Github.

After creating PML, I suddenly realized that it's syntax could also be used to write XML/HTML documents - a nice side effect. This article is my first step in making my idea public.

One could say that PML is to pXML like HTML is to XML. PML uses the pXML syntax, but only predefined, sematic PML tags are allowed.

Lenient Syntax in PML

An important aspect of PML is the parser's ability to work in lenient mode. This mode supports very targeted syntax simplifications, aiming to eliminate as much "noise" as possible. It should be easy to write articles and books in PML. Here is an example to illustrate the advantage of the lenient syntax:

This is the code of a simple PML document, written in strict pXML:

[doc (title=Test)
    [ch (title="An Unusual Surprise")
        [p Look at the following picture:]
        [image (source=images/strawberries.jpg)]
        [p Text of paragraph 2]
        [p Text of paragraph 3]

In lenient PML mode (always activated), the text can be shortened to:

[doc Test
    [ch An Unusual Surprise
        Look at the following picture:
        [image images/strawberries.jpg]
        Text of paragraph 2

        Text of paragraph 3

Let's briefly see how this works:

  • doc (title=Test) becomes doc Test:

    Some elements (for example doc) have a default attribute. For that attribute only the value needs to be specified - instead of writing (name=value) we can simply write value

  • [p Text of paragraph 2] becomes Text of paragraph 2:

    Free text not contained in an element is automatically embedded in a p (paragraph) element.

    Text separated by two new lines automatically creates a paragraph break.

If you want to try out the above code, you can proceed like this:

  • Download the PML to HTML Converter

  • Create file example.pml in any directory, with the PML code shown above (the strict pXML version will not work).

  • Copy a picture to resources/images/strawberries.jpg

  • Open a terminal in the directory of file example.pml and type:

    pmlc example.pml
  • Open file output/example.html in your browser.

    The result looks like this:

    HTML page created by PML

  • Right-click on the text, and select 'View Page Source' if you want to see the HTML code produced by the PML to HTML Converter.


After using the PML syntax for some time to create real articles (not just tests), I was somewhat confident that the pXML syntax should work well for XML documents too. However, to eliminate doubts, I wanted a proof of concept for pXML, before publishing this article. Therefore I created a parser that reads the pXML syntax presented in this article. The parser is written in Java and has no dependencies. I will open-source it.

The following features are currently implemented:

  • Convert pXML into XML (pXML/XML escape rules are applied)

  • Convert XML into pXML (pXML/XML escape rules are applied)

  • Read a pXML document into an org.w3c.dom.Document Java object.

    This is the most powerful feature. Once we have a Java Document object we can use all of XML's related specifications with a pXML document. A few examples are:

    • validate a document with XML Schema (W3C), RELAX NG, or Schematron

    • programmatically traverse the document

    • insert, modify, and delete elements and attributes, and save the result as a new XML or pXML document

    • query the document (search for values, compute aggregates, etc.) with XQuery/XPath

    • convert the document using an XSL transformer (e.g. create a differently structured XML document, create a plain text document, etc.)

Here is a "Hello World" example of a pXML to XML conversion:

  • Suppose we created file hello.pxml with this content (an empty root element with name hello):

  • The following Java code converts this pXML file into an XML file named hello.xml:

    PXMLToXMLConverter.PXMLFileToXMLFile ( new File("hello.pxml"), new File("hello.xml") );
  • The resulting hello.xml file looks like this:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <hello />            

The opposite (i.e., converting an XML file to a pXML file) can be done with:

XMLToPXMLConverter.XMLFileToPXMLFile ( new File("hello.xml"), new File("hello.pxml") );

Once the pXML parser is ready to be open-sourced (planned for May 2021), I'll publish a dedicated article with more examples.

I'm also working on a dedicated pXML website with a syntax specification and the grammar expressed in EBNF and railroad diagrams. Everybody is very welcome to participate in an open-source project.


A picture is worth a thousand words. So let's look at two common real life examples: a simple config file, and HTML code. We will compare code written in JSON, XML, pXML, and PML.

Simple Config File

A simple config file is just a (possibly nested) map of key/value pairs.


Here is an example in JSON:

        "foreground":"light green"


The need for quoting names and values is a bit annoying.

Another inconvenience is the comma required at the end of each assignment, except the last one. Each time we add a parameter at the end of a list, there is a risk of forgetting to add a comma at the existing second-last line.


The same config data look like this in XML:

        <foreground>light green</foreground>

Remark: The closing tags are noisy.

Alternative syntax, using attributes:

    <colors background="black" foreground="light green" />

Remark: Both syntaxes are not API-compatible. The change of using attributes instead of elements requires an update of the code that accesses the values of colors.


The pXML version looks like this:

    [size XL]
        [background black]
        [foreground light green]
    [transparent true]

Alternative syntax, using attributes:

    [size XL]
    [colors (background=black foreground="light green")]
    [transparent true]

Remark: Both syntaxes are API-compatible. The change of using attributes instead of elements does not require an update of the code that accesses the values of colors.


To compare the verbosity of the three syntaxes, let's consider the length of the markup code needed for one parameter (excluding whitespace):

Language Markup Length Range Remark
JSON "":"", 6 3 to 6 -2 for integer, boolean, and null values (because they are not quoted); -1 for the last parameter (because it doesn't have a trailing comma)
XML element <></size> 9 min. 6 The length depends on the number of characters in the name
XML attribute ="" 3 always 3  
pXML element [] 2 always 2  
pXML attribute = or ="" 1 or 3 1 or 3 The length is 1 if the value doesn't need to be quoted


The most verbose syntax is XML (especially in case of long parameter names). The least verbose one is pXML. Less noise implies 'easy to read and write for humans'.


Now we'll look at some HTML code - the most common use of XML. To keep the example short, we'll just look at an HTML snippet, leaving off the HTML header and footer.


The following code represents a chapter with three paragraphs and a picture:

    <h2>Harmonic States</h2>

    <p>The <i>initial</i> state looks like this:</p>
    <img src="images/state_1.png" />

    <p>After just a few <i><b>micro</b>seconds</i> the state changes.</p>
    <p>More text ...</p>


In a previous chapter we saw already that JSON is not a good fit to write HTML-like code. Nevertheless, let's a have look at the JSON version of our HTML snippet - just to confirm our previous conclusion:

{ "section": [
    { "h2": "Harmonic States" },

    { "p": [ "The ", { "i": "initial" }, " state looks like this:" ] },
    { "img": { "src": "images/state_1.png" } },

    { "p": [ "After just a few ", { "i": [ { "b": "micro" }, "seconds" ] }, 
      " the state changes." ] },
    { "p": "More text ..." }
] }

If we prettify, the 7 lines of code turn into 38 (!) lines with more whitespace than text:

            "h2":"Harmonic States"
                "The ",
                " state looks like this:"
                "After just a few ",
                " the state changes."
            "p":"More text ..."

Who would enjoy writing and maintaining code like this? Yet this is just a simple toy example. Imagine a code base with real-world, big and complex HTML code!


This is the pXML version:

    [h2 Harmonic States]

    [p The [i initial] state looks like this:]
    [img (src=images/state_1.png)]

    [p After just a few [i [b micro]seconds] the state changes.]
    [p More text ...]


As said already, PML has a lenient syntax mode that allows for very succinct markup code:

[ch Harmonic States

    The [i initial] state looks like this:
    [image images/state_1.png]

    After just a few [i [b micro]seconds] the state changes.
    More text ...


If we embed the above code in a doc element (as shown before), save the code into file test.pml, and run the PML to HTML Converter with the OS command pmlc test.pml, a complete HTML file is created (with header and footer). Here is an excerpt of this file (CSS code removed):

<section id="ch__1">
    <h2>Harmonic States</h2>
    <p>The <i>initial</i> state looks like this:</p>
        <img src="images/state_1.png" />
    <p>After just a few <i><b>micro</b>seconds</i> the state changes.</p>
    <p>More text ...</p>

As can be seen, it is very similar to the initial HTML code we would write by hand.


Let's look at numbers. How much effort does it take to write the code in the four languages? If we extract the markup code (i.e., remove whitespace and text displayed in the browser) we get this, from worst to best:

JSON: {"section":[{"h2":""},{"p":["",{"i":""},""]},

HTML: <section><h2></h2><p><i></i></p><imgsrc=""/><p><i><b></b></i></p><p></p></section>

pXML: [section[h2][p[i]][img(src=)][p[i[b]]][p]]

PML:  [ch[i][image][i[b]]]

Counting the number of characters gives us the following table:

Language Markup length Percentage of HTML
JSON 108 132%
HTML 82 100%
pXML 42 51%
PML 20 24%

A graph of these numbers looks like this:

Number of characters in JSON, HTML, pXML, and PML

Of course, this is not a representative result. Other HTML examples would lead to more or less different numbers. However, it clearly shows the impact of syntax. Syntax affects complexity, space and time, and usability. Succinct syntax makes it easier and more enjoyable to read and write code.

Syntax Comparison

Here is a brief comparison of the XML vs pXML syntax:

Empty element:

XML:  <br />
pXML: [br]

Element with text content:

XML:  <summary>text</summary>
pXML: [summary text]

Element with child elements:

XML:  <ul>
              <div>A <i>friendly</i> dog</div>

pXML: [ul
              [div A [i friendly] dog]


XML:  <div id="unplug_warning" class="warning big-text">Unplug power cord before opening!</div>
pXML: [div (id=unplug_warning class="warning big-text")Unplug power cord before opening!]


XML:  <note>Watch out for &lt;, &gt;, &quot;, &apos;, &amp;, [, ], and \ characters</note>
pXML: [note Watch out for <, >, ", ', &, \[, \], and \\ characters]    


Single comment:
XML:  <!-- text -->
pXML: [- text -]

Nested comments:
XML:  not supported
pXML: [- text [- nested -] -]

Summary and Conclusion

As demonstrated, it is possible to simplify the XML syntax and make it more accessible for humans.

The pXML syntax introduced in this article essentially suggests three changes:

  • Replace the XML syntax:


    ... with:

    [name value]
    From XML to pXML
  • Embed attributes between parenthesis and allow unquoted values if possible.

    The XML code:

    name1="value" name2="value with spaces"

    ... becomes:

    (name1=value name2="value with spaces")
  • Support for nested comments (not supported in XML)

Although the pXML syntax is less verbose and different from XML, all great additions that are part of the XML ecosystem can still be used. Once a pXML document is parsed into an XML tree, documents can be validated, queried, modified, and transformed.

Well designed syntax increases productivity, reduces errors, eases maintenance, and improves space and time efficiency.

Syntax matters!

Article History

  • 10th March, 2021
    • First version
  • 20th April, 2021
    • Added attributes syntax
    • Removed optional name prefix # (used to differentiate between data and metadata)


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The GNU General Public License (GPLv3)

Written By
Software Developer
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Curious programmer. Zealous simplifier. Lifelong student of life.
I care about creating software that is easy to use, reliable, and maintainable.

Comments and Discussions

GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
Master DJon23-Mar-22 9:28
Master DJon23-Mar-22 9:28 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 Pin
ChristianNeumanns23-Mar-22 21:32
mvaChristianNeumanns23-Mar-22 21:32 
QuestionHow does it work when attributes are in fact text? Pin
Master DJon23-Mar-22 9:26
Master DJon23-Mar-22 9:26 
Let pose an example:
[p (attrib1=value1) (attrib1=value1)]

This would be interpreted as a p element having one attribute attrib1 with the value value1 and a text (attrib1=value1)

Though, how can I set the text to be (attrib1=value1) without attributes. Maybe I missed something, but I don't think there is a mention that parenthesis shall be escaped, thus, how does the parser make the difference?

I admit... escaping the parenthesis would do the trick (I presume any character can be escaped as \ has to be written \\). Also, writing useless () after the element name would also do it.

My only point here is: Is it mentioned somewhere? Or... Am I wrong?
AnswerRe: How does it work when attributes are in fact text? Pin
ChristianNeumanns23-Mar-22 21:32
mvaChristianNeumanns23-Mar-22 21:32 
GeneralLayout does not matter Pin
mbah23-Apr-21 20:30
mbah23-Apr-21 20:30 
GeneralRe: Layout does not matter Pin
ChristianNeumanns27-Apr-21 16:47
mvaChristianNeumanns27-Apr-21 16:47 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
Zubair Rashid22-Apr-21 1:16
professionalZubair Rashid22-Apr-21 1:16 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 Pin
ChristianNeumanns22-Apr-21 22:24
mvaChristianNeumanns22-Apr-21 22:24 
PraiseI like it Pin
rhyous21-Apr-21 14:02
rhyous21-Apr-21 14:02 
GeneralRe: I like it Pin
Franc Morales21-Apr-21 19:34
Franc Morales21-Apr-21 19:34 
GeneralRe: I like it Pin
ChristianNeumanns21-Apr-21 21:13
mvaChristianNeumanns21-Apr-21 21:13 
QuestionGood Job Pin
rcsteiner21-Apr-21 9:20
rcsteiner21-Apr-21 9:20 
AnswerRe: Good Job Pin
ChristianNeumanns21-Apr-21 20:50
mvaChristianNeumanns21-Apr-21 20:50 
QuestionMixing attributes and child elements is a lossy conversion Pin
David On Life20-Apr-21 23:01
David On Life20-Apr-21 23:01 
AnswerRe: Mixing attributes and child elements is a lossy conversion Pin
ChristianNeumanns20-Apr-21 23:26
mvaChristianNeumanns20-Apr-21 23:26 
QuestionSuggestion for improvement Pin
Gernot Frisch20-Apr-21 19:28
Gernot Frisch20-Apr-21 19:28 
AnswerRe: Suggestion for improvement Pin
ChristianNeumanns20-Apr-21 22:57
mvaChristianNeumanns20-Apr-21 22:57 
GeneralRe: Suggestion for improvement Pin
Gernot Frisch22-Apr-21 3:32
Gernot Frisch22-Apr-21 3:32 
GeneralRe: Suggestion for improvement Pin
ChristianNeumanns23-Apr-21 16:44
mvaChristianNeumanns23-Apr-21 16:44 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
@k@ ?20-Apr-21 14:54
professional@k@ ?20-Apr-21 14:54 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 Pin
ChristianNeumanns20-Apr-21 22:50
mvaChristianNeumanns20-Apr-21 22:50 
QuestionGood job Pin
Roger House20-Apr-21 19:53
Roger House20-Apr-21 19:53 
AnswerRe: Good job Pin
ChristianNeumanns20-Apr-21 22:49
mvaChristianNeumanns20-Apr-21 22:49 
QuestionKeyboards Pin
VOQUI20-Apr-21 8:17
VOQUI20-Apr-21 8:17 
AnswerRe: Keyboards Pin
ChristianNeumanns20-Apr-21 22:47
mvaChristianNeumanns20-Apr-21 22:47 

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